A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences by Michael AllabyThis leading dictionary offers wide-ranging and authoritative coverage of the earth sciences and related topics in over 7,500 clear and accessible entries. This new edition has been fully updated and 150 new entries added, with expanded coverage of geology and planetary geology terms, and over 130 line drawings accompany the definitions.
Publication Date: 2013
Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology by Peter Bobrowsky (Editor); Brian Marker (Editor)This volume addresses the multi-disciplinary topic of engineering geology and the environment, one of the fastest growing, most relevant and applied fields of research and study within the geosciences. It covers the fundamentals of geology and engineering where the two fields overlap and, in addition, highlights specialized topics that address principles, concepts and paradigms of the discipline, including operational terms, materials, tools, techniques and methods as well as processes, procedures and implications.
Publication Date: 2018
Encyclopedia of Geochemistry by William M. White (Editor); William H. Casey (Other); Bernard Marty (Other); Hisayoshi Yurimoto (Other)The Encyclopedia is a complete and authoritative reference work for this rapidly evolving field. Over 300 international scientists, each experts in their specialties, have written over 330 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including geochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, isotope and organic geochemistry, meteorites and cosmochemistry, the carbon cycle and climate, trace elements, geochemistry of high and low temperature processes, and ore deposition, to name just a few. The geochemical behavior of the elements is described as is the state of the art in analytical geochemistry. Each topic incorporates cross-referencing to related articles, and also has its own reference list to lead the reader to the essential articles within the published literature. The entries are arranged alphabetically, for easy access, and the subject and author indices are comprehensive and extensive. Geochemistry applies chemical techniques and approaches to understanding the Earth and how it works. It touches upon almost every aspect of earth science, ranging from applied topics such as the search for energy and mineral resources, environmental pollution, and climate change to more basic questions such as the Earth's origin and composition, the origin and evolution of life, rock weathering and metamorphism, and the pattern of ocean and mantle circulation. Geochemistry allows us to assign absolute ages to events in Earth's history, to trace the flow of ocean water both now and in the past, trace sediments into subduction zones and arc volcanoes, and trace petroleum to its source rock and ultimately the environment in which it formed. The earliest of evidence of life is provided by chemical and isotopic traces, not fossils, preserved in rocks. Geochemistry has allowed us to unravel the history of the ice ages and thereby deduce their cause. Geochemistry allows us to determine the swings in Earth's surface temperatures during the ice ages, determine the temperatures and pressures at which rocks have been metamorphosed, and the rates at which ancient magma chambers cooled and crystallized. The field has grown rapidly more sophisticated, in both analytical techniques that can determine elemental concentrations or isotope ratios with exquisite precision and in computational modeling on scales ranging from atomic to planetary.
Publication Date: 2018
Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs by David Hopley (Editor)Coral reefs are the largest landforms built by plants and animals. Their study therefore incorporates a wide range of disciplines. This encyclopedia approaches coral reefs from an earth science perspective, concentrating especially on modern reefs. Currently coral reefs are under high stress, most prominently from climate change with changes to water temperature, sea level and ocean acidification particularly damaging. Modern reefs have evolved through the massive environmental changes of the Quaternary with long periods of exposure during glacially lowered sea level periods and short periods of interglacial growth. The entries in this encyclopedia condense the large amount of work carried out since Charles Darwin first attempted to understand reef evolution. Leading authorities from many countries have contributed to the entries covering areas of geology, geography and ecology, providing comprehensive access to the most up-to-date research on the structure, form and processes operating on Quaternary coral reefs.