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Scholarly vs websites

Indicators of scholarly vs popular vs trade sources

  Scholarly Popular Trade 
Authors: Experts such as academics, researchers and scientists Generalists, including bloggers, staff writers, and journalists; not always attributed Authors tend be identified; likely industry professionals or experts
Examples: Academy of Management Journal, American Psychologist,  Gender and Society, books from presses such as Wiley and Sage Wikipedia,,,, bestselling books; books from popular publishers like Penguin and Random House Harvard Business Review, The Economist, The Mandarin; Forbes
Focus: Specific and in-depth Broad overviews Industry specific
Language: Dense; uses academic jargon Easier to read; defines specialized terms May use subject or industry specific terminology
Format: Almost always include: abstracts, literature reviews, methodologies, results, and conclusions Varies Short articles and opinion pieces
Citations: Include bibliographies, citations, and footnotes that follow a particular academic style guide No formal citations included; may or may not informally attribute sources in text  May or may not attribute sources in text 
Before publication: Evaluated by peers (other scholars)  Edited by in-house editors or not edited at all Edited/reviewed by industry editors
Audience: Specialists in the subject area: students, professors and the author's peers General readers; shouldn't require any special background Industry professionals
Design: Mostly text, with some tables and charts; very little photography; no advertising Glossy images, attractive design; photo illustrations and advertising are more common Usually includes industry specific advertising, photos
Purpose: Communicating research findings; education;  Entertainment; news To inform on current or emerging industry issues 
Subjects: Business / Accountancy, Business / Philanthropy and nonprofit studies
Tags: business research, industries, philanthropy